South Land of the Holy Spirit Preface Foreword & Acknowledgements


            There has not been a more exciting book in years written with regard to Australia's past heritage than Elizabeth Kotlowski's Southland of the Holy Spirit: A Christian History of Australia. In fact, it can be somewhat sadly said that this is the first sophisticated telling of the untold story of Australia's Christian past and veritable foundation. By careful selection and presentation of hundreds of vivid authentic stories and historical records written in lively text, the author has accomplished for Christianity a firm foundation for the return to true and tried biblical action clearly purposed by God for Australia.

            The whole story of our almost forgotten Christian heritage comes alive in this lively and thoroughly non-partisan account. Heroes are properly celebrated particularly with regard to their Christian characteristics, and church history is presented in a cohesive and meaningful way.

            Research has been painstaking and provides the reader with fresh illumination of many key figures and events in the Christian history of our nation. In an age when society is seemingly at the crossroads with secularism running rampant, this history, unvarnished by myth, has perhaps never deserved closer scrutiny.

            Any thoughtful reader would have to readily confess that there have been all too many times in our past history when in spite of lip service to basic creeds, the average church has wandered so far from the basic precepts of Christianity that it has deserved the host of uncomplimentary remarks and epithets that are now commonly heaped upon it by those hostile to Christianity. The writer of Southland of the Holy Spirit  rightly concludes that "To know where we are going we must remember from where we have come". The key word is remember. "Remember all the way that the Lord God has led you".

            Australia leads the world in many areas with its greatest potential yet to be fulfilled, which is to be used by God to become a world leader in exporting the Gospel through missionary outreach to our neighbours. Let us never forget Jesus' last command to us--that we are (without excuse or exception) to be witnesses unto Him wherever we are (Acts 1:8).

            Alasdair P. Webster

                        Former Federal Member of Parliament

                        Past President, National Parliamentary Christian                                Fellowship



            One memorable cold, blustery day in November 1959, I boarded an Italian liner and sailed out of Port Phillip Bay, bound for merry England. As the Melbourne smog melted with the horizon, little did I guess it would be twelve long years before I would set foot on Australian soil again. Born in Melbourne, Victoria, I grew up on Wulgulmerang, a 2600-acre sheep and cattle property, 16 miles from the Snowy River. My Dad, Lionel (Dick) Churchill Rogers, was another "Man from Snowy River", who helped pioneer the high country of East Gippsland, and my Mum, Heather Geraldine (Stutterd) Rogers, was a beloved bush nurse. I well remember the day Dad brought home Rosy, a temperamental brumby that tested my riding skills for the next few years. Wulgulmerang, which in the Aboriginal language means: "Where are you going?" was to be prophetic of my life story.

            A search for God's purpose for my life led me to a study of my country's history. It is the hypothesis of this book that Australia was founded as a Christian nation. The Spanish Roman Catholic missionary Pedro Fernandez de Quiros named our country: La Terra Australia del Espiritu Santo, theSouthland of the Holy Spirit. My purpose is to answer the questions: "Where did Australia come from? Where is she going? What is God's purpose for our nation? How do we get there?" Thus, this book has been more than a journey back home--it has been an exciting discovery of "His Story" or how God miraculously preserved Australia and prepared her for a unique plan to reach the nations of the world with the Gospel. Australia is the back door to Asia, where by the year two thousand, half the world's population will live. The Psalmist wrote: God's words went "to the end of the world" (Ps. 19:4). The inhabitants of the islands shall be glad.

            As I have circled the globe, God has miraculously preserved me and prepared me to play a part in the coming great move of the Holy Spirit. I can see Australia as an Australian, but also through American eyes because the United States has been my home for the last twenty years. It has all been part of God's preparation in my life. I shall always be grateful to my many wonderful American friends, who have taught me the ways of God. As I come home, it is to remind my fellow Australians to return to the God of our forefathers, just as the boomerang rebounds to the feet of its master.

            This book is more than a history of Australia; it is about education, government, and above all, biblical principles. The manuscript started as a thesis for two Master's Degrees--in Public Affairs Journalism and Public Policy (political science) at Regent (formerly CBN) University. As I looked for a theoretical framework, I discovered the work of American Christian historian Verna M. Hall (1912-1987) and American Christian educator Rosalie J. Slater. In my study of Australian Christian history, I was excited to discover the same seven biblical principles stemming from our mutual English common law heritage--that were discovered by Misses Hall and Slater.

            If taught and practised, these seven biblical principles of government and education will transform individual lives, families, church and civil government and bring a restoration of freedom or liberty to Australia, or to any other nation. The biblical foundation of Australian society is being rapidly eroded. Most parents no longer teach their children biblical principles, so humanist educators have introduced a values clarification program into government schools to fill the moral vacuum. Humanist legislators have introduced United Nations human rights' instruments to replace Christian laws. But when the Christian foundation of a nation is removed, the lawful state will collapse, sooner or later. Moral corruption will destroy the nation from within, like it destroyed Rome, as Saint Augustine eloquently testified.[1] "If [then] the foundations be destroyed, what can the righteous do?" (Ps. 11:3).

            We must first repent and believe the Gospel (Mark 1:15). We must rediscover the Christian foundations of our country, and educate our children in biblical principles of government and education. This action will help restore our Christian leadership. Even though the story of Australia's founding is very different from America's, we share a common heritage--the British common law, based on biblical law, and the Gospel of Jesus Christ, the law of love. The Gospel contains the seed of liberty, and the tree of life "on either side of the river" produces "the leaves . . . for the healing of the nations" (Rev. 22:1-2).[2] Principle means "source" or "origin". To know who we are, we must know where we have come from (our origins) and, then, we will know where we are going.[3]


Some Apologies and Clarifications

            This book is going to be controversial no matter which way I cut the cake. It is about seven principles of government and education derived from the Bible. It is called the Principle Approach. How can I talk about principles of government without mentioning some touchy issues, especially at this time, as the republican versus a constitutional monarchy debate rages on and United Nations human rights' instruments are threatening the very Christian foundations of our nation? An Australian friend had suggested I leave out the word "republic".[4] But, an American friend, the principal of a local Christian school, said: "If you leave out "republic", you'll cut the heart out of the Principle Approach". I would not want to be guilty of cutting out the heart and leaving you with the lifeless body, so I left it in. Actually, the words "republic" and "commonwealth" have the same Latin root, "civitas".[5]

            Some suggested that I leave out all American references. I realise that could be the major difficulty Australian readers may have with the book. I apologise. My problem has been a lack of access to British and Australian sources (except for the two months I was in Australia in 1992). The alternative, which I chose, was to write the book from the perspective of an Australian who has lived in America for the last twenty years. The reader may ask: "Can anything good come out of the United States?" Movies, McDonald's hamburgers, and hundreds of new books are imported annually from America, along with a multitude of other goods and ideas--some good and some not so good. Christians need to accept the truth no matter where it comes from. Like the wise old cow, we should chew the hay and spit out the sticks.

            One of the "goodies" I discovered in America was the research of Verna Hall and Rosalie Slater, bringing to light biblical truths, which like unearthed veins of gold, reveal America's history. Why did I choose Hall and Slater's research? While there are many other excellent philosophies that incorporate biblical principles, I know of no other subject that strikes at the heart of society more than "government". Some of you have read books by the American Christian author Gary North, who has unequivocally stated that: "There is no escape from the conclusion: The United States Constitution is an atheistic, humanistic covenant", Political Polytheism  (Tyler: ICE, 1989), p. 403. This belief undercuts the whole integrity of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution. However, my thesis is that the seven biblical principles of government, as articulated by Verna Hall and Rosalie Slater, are found in both the Constitution of the United States of America and the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution.

            I am certainly not suggesting that Australia should become a republic. Australia already has a Christian constitution and a Monarchy we can be proud of. I am an Australian still, and always will be. In 1954, when Queen Elizabeth II visited Australia, I saw her eight times! She was young, radiant and beautiful. Our home was well stocked with books about the Royal Family. I remember listening to the royal wedding on the wireless, while I lay on the floor of the sitting room at boarding school in Melbourne. That makes me prehistoric to some of you! The point is, I am all for the Monarchy. I've lived in England, Scotland and Canada. The Commonwealth "family", the Monarchy and our common Christian British heritage bind us together like no other institution could. I think that is a good thing in a world that is falling apart.

            Nor am I suggesting that Australia should become a theocracy in the sense of being governed by professing Christians, who would use the power of the sword to force everyone else to become "Christians". Sadly, history provides some graphic examples. I am advocating a theocracy in the sense of God ruling in the hearts of His people, who in turn exercise the powers of authority that God has ordained. It is important to distinguish two extremes--that of the pietist and the reconstructionist. The pietist emphasizes personal salvation and the transformation of the inner man, while the reconstructionist emphasises the transformation of society, starting from the inner man. The pietist asks: "Why polish the brass on a sinking ship?" Politics is "dirty". On the other hand, the reconstructionist believes that he is to set up the Kingdom of God on earth. Jesus did not deny this. He said, however, that it was not for his disciples to know the times or seasons (Acts 1:6-11). I believe the truth lies somewhere between these two extremes. The problem with most Christians is that they do not understand the critical role of civil government or distinguish between the different spheres of government that God has ordained--self-government, family, church and civil government. Each area has different functions. The role of the church, in evangelism and discipleship, can be better carried out if the civil government does its job of punishing evil doers and protecting well doers.

            Those who are fearful of a rising Christian nationalism and argue that the emphasis in the New Testament is not on nationalism but on the church, which is multi-national, need to re-examine the teachings of Christ. He frequently talked about the Kingdom of God, starting from within a person and working its way outwards to change society (Matthew 13). Because Jesus' ministry was short, there was no time for a nation to be developed upon these principles. That took centuries. In Old Testament days, the nation of Israel operated upon biblical principles of civil government. Though it may be argued that Israel was replaced by the church (which became spiritual Israel), God did not do away with nations. Rather, He created every nation (Greek: ethnos or people group, Acts 17:26). One good reason was to prevent the concentration of power in a centralised government. Today we are seeing a de-emphasis of nationalism with an emphasis on multi-culturalism and a veneration of a one-world governmental model. A return to biblical principles of government based on God's Law, as spelled out in the Old Testament and restated by Christ in the New Testament, is what the Australian Constitution and the Monarchy are all about.

            This book is a review of our English heritage and its consequences. It is written from the point of view of an educational historian. To explain the significance of events and describe the philosophy of government, I have divided the book into three parts. The theoretical sections are necessary to understand the narrative. Much of the important material--as, for example, the identification of the seven biblical principles of government--has been put in the footnotes so as not to interrupt the flow of the story.

            For the same reason my use of 'he', 'man' and 'mankind', etc. throughout the book is simply for ease of expression and to aid the flow of the text. It is not intended to be sexist in any way. The reader should also bear in mind that Australia was founded in an age when gross sexual discrimination was the norm. Men also naturally featured more prominently among the early explorers when persons of sheer physical strength, unfettered by child bearing responsibilities, were needed to hack a path through the unfriendly wilderness.

            Because this book is an overview of Australian history, it was necessary for me to be selective. It was therefore impossible to include all the significant events and individuals within the scope of one book. So, if I have left out some of your favourite players, please forgive me. And I do not necessarily think New South Wales is the greatest and the best State! It just happened NSW got started before the rest. Although I lived in Sydney for seven years, I grew up in beautiful sedate Victoria.

            Since I have not lived in Australia since 1959, it has been hard for me to get a real feel for the political, social and spiritual climate in Australia while living in the United States. News from "Down Under" has been sparse and far between, except a "Man from Snowy River" or a "Crocodile Dundee" that fired the American imagination. When I was in Australia for two months in the winter of 1992, I had access to primary sources and current information that I cannot readily find in the Unites States. I apologise that I have not been able to adapt the book more to the Australian scene.

            For that reason, I would welcome your input in the form of suggestions, ideas, comments, that could be included in the next revised edition. I want to make the book useful to you, especially to teachers and home schoolers. I also plan to write an accompanying teacher's guide, and possibly, a series of short biographical narratives of famous Australians, for grades three to seven. Let us know if you are interested. Please write to me, or to Dr Graham McLennan, Director, The Christian History Research Institute, 81 Woodward St, Orange, NSW 2800, Australia. We will look forward to hearing from you.

            It is timely that this book should be finished on 25 June 1994, the day of March for Jesus Australia in which 100,000s of Christians from across our country participated. The March was part of a global March for Jesus, in which Christians from 178 countries from around the globe declared to the world that Jesus is Lord. If Jesus is Lord, then whom should we fear?


                                                            Elizabeth Rogers Kotlowski

                                                                        25 June 1994



            I wish especially to thank Dr Graham McLennan, BDS, Director of the [Australian] Christian History Research Institute, and National Coordinator of the National Alliance of Christian Leaders (NACL). Dr McLennan made this book possible by generously making his resources, counsel and contacts available to me. Four years ago, I had a desire to write the story of Australia's Providential history. Unknown to me, Dr McLennan, 20,000 kilometres away, also had a vision for such a venture--to celebrate the Bicentenary of the opening of the first Australian Christian church and Christian school. While God had given me the writing talent, He had given Dr McLennan the resources and contacts that I needed to write the book. It was God who providentially brought us together. We started to correspond; Dr McLennan sent me books, and then last winter, he invited me to spend two months in his home, where I had access to his private library. Dr McLennan's research assistance, his direction, encouragement and practical support, along with the gracious hospitality of his wonderful wife, Pam, and their three children, Chris, Tess and Michael, all contributed to make this book a reality. To God be all the glory. Thanks, too, to Katie Field for her research assistance, and to Max Schibrowski for the use of his office equipment.

            I also want to thank Dr Walter W. Davis of Regent University School of Public Policy for the many hours he spent reading book drafts with meticulous concern for transitions and scholarship, and for his constant encouragement and patience. Thanks also to the following people for reading and criticising the rough draft: Dr Graham McLennan; Rev. Dr David Mitchell; Rev. Robert Frisken; Rev. Dr Gordon Powell; Richard Eason; Dr Richard Ely; Paul Meeth; Dr Clifford Kelly; Miss Rosalie Slater; Dr Carole Adams; Dr Peter Prosser; Jose Gonzalez; Cynthia Ellenwood; Maxwell Lyons; Katherine Dang; Stephen McDowell; Anita Simpkins (nee Rivera); Jeanette Smith; James Duncan; Laura Lunn; and to Dr Elaine Duval for editing. Thank you Jill Read for your professional painstaking copyediting, and Kristi Taylor for your secretarial assistance. I appreciate all your valuable input and encouragement. Thank you Paul Jehle, for introducing me to the Principle Approach, and Carole Adams, President of Stonebridge Educational Foundation and School, for your inspiration in encouraging me to launch out on such a mammoth undertaking as writing a Christian history of Australia. The result of the input from many great minds has been the birth in me of a desire to see Australian school children walk the roads of God through a knowledge of the history of "Australia Del Espiritu Santo", our Lord's beloved "Southland of the Holy Spirit", a land from which one day will shine the light of the glorious Gospel of Christ to the surrounding nations.












Christian History Research Institute

81 Woodward St, Orange, NSW 2800


J. Bell Pty. Ltd., 13-15 Mc Cauley St.

Dr Graham McLennan, Publisher Christian History Research Institute

81 Woodward St, Orange, NSW 2800

Cover Design by Marvin T. Harrell

This book is copyrighted. Apart from any fair dealing for the

purposes of private study, research, criticism or review, as

permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission.

Enquiries should be made to the publisher, Dr McLennan.

Copyright: Elizabeth Rogers Kotlowski, 1994

All rights reserved.

            National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry

            Kotlowski, Elizabeth Rogers, 1932--

            Southland of the Holy Spirit: A Christian History of Australia.


            First Published, Orange, NSW, Australia:                             

                                    Christian History Research Institute



                                    ISBN  0 958 76900 3

                                    Australia--History to 1900

To My Parents

Lionel (Dick) Churchill Rogers and Heather Geraldine (nee Stutterd)

and to Granny,

Mary Alice Rogers (nee Gamble)

who led me in the roads of God.

Psalm 145:4

"One generation shall praise thy works to another, and shall declare thy mighty acts".

"Give ear, O my people, to my law: incline your ears to the words of my mouth.

2. I will open my mouth in a parable: I will utter dark sayings of old:

3. Which we have heard and known, and our fathers have told us.

4. We will not hide them from their children, showing to the generation

to come the praises of the Lord, and his strength, and his wonderful works that he hath done.

5. For he established a testimony in Jacob, and appointed a law in Israel,

which he commanded our fathers, that they should make them known to their children:

6. That the generation to come might know them, even the children which should be born; who should arise and declare them to their children:

7. That they might set their hope in God, and not forget the works of God, but keep his commandments".


               Foreword                                                                                                    vii

               Table of Contents                                                                                         ix

               Illustration                                                                                  xv

               Preface                                                                                                      xvii

               Acknowledgements                                                                                 xxiii


I.             INTRODUCTION                                                                                         1


               Australia del Espiritu Santo: Southland of the Holy Spirit                          2

               A Historical Approach                                                                                    4

               First Gospel Service                                                                                       7

               Opening of the First Church                                                                           8

               First Christian School                                                                                     9

               Bicentennial Celebrations of Christian Schooling in                                               Australia 1793-1993                                                                                          11

               The March of Witness                                                                                  11

               Public Gathering                                                                            12

               One Blood, One Nation, One Destiny                                                         13

               A Nation United Through Prayer                                                                 14

               An Australian Identity Crisis?                                                                      16

               The Principle Approach                                                                                18

               Thinking Governmentally                                                              20

               God's Purpose for Australia                                                                         20

               Liberty is not Licence                                                                                  22

               Christian Self-Government                                                                          23

II.            BIBLICAL FOUNDATIONS OF GOVERNMENT                                    27

               A Providential View of History and Government                                      27

                              Why Study History?                                                                       29

                              The Bible as Political Textbook                                                   32

               SEVEN PRINCIPLES OF GOVERNMENT                                33

               Two Keys                                                                                                       34

                              Internal versus External                                                                 34

                              Righteousness versus Unrighteousness                                       34

               1. The Principle of Individuality;                                                                  35

                              Unity within Diversity: Unique Purpose                      

                              in All Creation                                                                                35

                              The Christian Idea of Man                                              37

                              Implications for Education                                                            37

                              Implications for Government                                                        38

               2. The Principle of Christian Self-Government                                         38


               3. The Principle of Christian Character                                                      41

                              Implications for Education                                                            42

               4. The Principle of Conscience as the Most Sacred of

                              All Property                                                                                    43

                              Implications for Education                                                            46

               5. The Principle of the Christian Form of Government                            47

                              Representation: The Consent of the People                                47

                              Separation of Powers: Legislative, Executive                                                           and Judicial                                                                                          49

                              Dual Form of Government: State and Federal                             49

                              Implications for Education                                                            50


               6. The Principle of the Planting of the Seed of Local                                                             Self-Government                                                                     51

                              Civil Government Modelled on Church Government                 52

                              Local Sovereignty                                                                          53

               7. The Christian Principle of Political Union                                            53

                              Implications for Education                                                            56

III.          THE HISTORY OF LIBERTY                                                                      57

                              Introduction                                                                                    57

                              English Heritage: Background to Australian History                 59


IV.          THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD IN DELAYING THE SETTLEMENT OF AUSTRALIA                                                                    71

               Australian Geography                                                                                   71

               The Early Inhabitants                                                                                     73

               The Asians                                                                                                      74

               The Europeans                                                                                               76

                              Ferdinand Magellan                                                                        76

                              Pedro Fernandez de Quiros                                                           78

                              Abel Tasman                                                                                   80

                              William Dampier                                                                           81

V.           COOK                                                                                                            83

               Early Years: Preparation                                                                              83

               The Navy                                                                                                        85

               Cook's First Voyage:  1768-71                                                                   87

               Cook's Second Voyage:  1772-75                                                               92

               Cook's Third Voyage:  1776-80                                                                  93

VI.          CONVICTS                                                                                                    95

VII.         MISSIONARIES                                                                        103

               Richard Johnson                                                                                       103

               Samuel Marsden                                                                                       107

               Rowland Hassall                                                                                       110

               John Watsford                                                                                          112

               Lancelot Threlkeld                                                                                   113

VIII.        EDUCATORS: 1788-1993                                                                     117

               Stage One: Independent Denominational Schools:

                              Responsibility                                                                           118

                              Early Schools                                                                            123

                              Early Roman Catholic Schools                                                131

                              The Irish National System                                         132

               Stage Two: Organised Denominational Schools:                                                                     Transition and Compromise                                         134

               Stage Three: Controlled Denominational Schools:                                                                 Protestant Resignation                                                                 135

                              Secular State Schools: Religious Neutrality                          137

               The Twentieth Century                                                                             140

               The Twenty-First Century                                                         143

IX.          GOVERNORS                                                                                          147

               Arthur Phillip: 1788-1792                                                                      148

               John Hunter: 1795-1800                                                                         151

               Lachlan Macquarie: 1810-1822                                                             153

               Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane: 1821-1825                                     157

               Richard Bourke: 1831-1838                                                                   160

               Sir George Gipps: 1838-1846                                                                162

               Charles Augustus FitzRoy: 1846-1855                                                 166

X.           EXPLORERS                                                                                           169

               Introduction                                                                                              169

               Matthew Flinders: 1774-1814                                                                172

               Blaxland, Wentworth and Lawson                                                           175

               Captain Charles Sturt: 1795-1869                                                         177

               Edward John Eyre: 1815-1901                                                               185

               Sir George Grey: 1812-1898                                                                 193

               Frederich Wilhelm Ludwig Leichhardt: 1813-1848?                          194

               John McDouall Stuart: 1815-1866                                                        198

               Peter Egerton Warburton: 1813-1889                                                  200

               Sir John Forrest: 1847-1918                                                                  203

XI.          PIONEERS                                                                                               207

               John Flynn: 1880-1951                                                                           207

               Caroline Chisholm: 1808-1877                                                             213

               Elizabeth Macarthur: 1767?-1850                                                         222

               Georgiana Molloy: 1805-1843                                                              226

               Mary McConnel: 1824-1910                                                                 227

               John Ridley: 1806-1887                                                                         231

               Hugh Victor McKay: 1865-1926                                                           231

XII.         CHRISTIAN SETTLEMENT OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA                       233


XIII.       CHRISTIAN SELF-GOVERNMENT & FEDERATION                       241

               Introduction: Government                                                                       241

               Christian Self-Government                                                                     243

               Family Government                                                                                 245

               Church Government                                                                                 248

               Civil Government: Local Government versus Central                                              Government                                                                                              249

               The History of Christian Self-Government and Federation                 251

               An Australian Republic?                                                                       261

               The Declaration of Independence: The Art of Changing                           Governments Lawfully                                                                        269


               Christian Constitutions Work in Christian Nations                              275

               Seven Principles of Covenant or Constitution Making                        276

               Three Contract Principles                                                                       277

                              The Rule of Law: Justification of Authority            277

                              Mutual Obligation: Reciprocity                                               278

                              Community: Community Trust                                                279

               Four Perpetuity Principles                                                                      280

                              Irrevocably Binding                                                                   280

                              Limited Modifiability                                                               281

                              Binding on Future Generations                                                282

                              Legal Framework for the Administration of Law                   283

               Differences & Similarities Between the Two Constitutions               284

               A Comparison Between Titus’ Seven Covenantal Principles

                              and Slater’s Seven Principles of Government                        285

               Australia is a Christian Nation: Sovereignty of God’s Law                  286

               Limited Government                                                                                287

               Who is in Control?                                                                                   289

XV.        CONCLUSIONS                                                                       293

               Appendix I:  History of the Principle Approach                                 305

               Appendix II:  The Four "R's"                                                                  309

               Bibliography                                                                                            313

               Index                                                                                                         333

               Resource Organisations                                                                        345

               About Dr Graham McLennan                                                                346

               The Christian History Research Institute: Publications                  347

               About the Author                                                                                     348



Celebrating the Bicentenary                            frontispiece


                    [1]Saint Augustine, The City of God. Translated by Marcus Dods (New York: The Modern Library, 1950). This 1600-year-old classic describes the Christian foundation of Western civilisation even though the general reader may not agree with all of Augustine's theology.

               [2]Verna Hall

               [3]Alex Haley, Roots.

               [4]For a discussion of the difference between the American and Australian meanings of the word republic, see Chapter XIII on self-government.

               [5]D. P. Simpson, Cassell's Latin Dictionary (New York: Macmillan, 1977), pp. 814 and 678.